Monday, 23 December 2013

Research Question, Methodology, and Paradigm

Research Question, Methodology, and Paradigm

Q1: Why do we conduct a research?
A: to understand and to increase our knowledge in science

Q2: Why do we need a research question?
A: Because research comes to understand something (such as problem, phenomenon)

Q3: How many research questions should we have in the research?
A: It should be one or two questions at maximum. More than two questions makes your research as more than one research and it will not be easy to integrate between them. Your research will not be consistent enough.
It is very risky to have more than research questions in one thesis (master or PhD theses). Many major corrections come because of the existence of more than two unrelated research questions.

Q4: But I want to structure my theses to publish more than one paper, what should I do?
A: You can have a general research question and derive from it sub research questions, maximum 5 sub research questions. each sub-question could be utilized as a paper later.

Q5: What is the difference between Research Question, Research Aim, and Research Objectives?
A: the answer is based on research strategy; some research is research question lead, others lead by research aim.
Research Question Lead à Positive and Interpretive Research (You want to know/understand something unknown)
Research Aim Lead à Design Science Research (example, the research aim is to provide a maturity model, assessment tools, or to provide a software solution to a company).

Q6: What is research Objectives?
A: the answer is why do you conduct your research? To what? Always research objectives start by “to  …..” e.g. “to understand , to solve the problem, to develop a model, to develop a methodology”

Q7: What are different research questions ?
A: What, Why , and Why?

Q8: Do you think there is a relationship between research questions and research paradigms and methodology?
A: Although there is no right and wrong in research, since everything is based on logic, there is a tendency that
-          What à Positive Research (Testing Hypotheses research either through quantitative research through survey research or through qualitative research through Case Study methodology.
-          Why à Interpretive research using case study research or grounded theory research
-          How à Interpretive research using case study, grounded theory, and /or action research.
Note: If there is a possibility that your research could be done using positive research, it is better to do it positive not interpretive. You have to be able to defend why you use interpretive research.  

Q9: Draw the relationship between research question, methodology, and paradigm

Friday, 12 April 2013

Critical Realism School of Research

Q1: What are traditional schools of research (Research Paradigms)?
1     -    Positivism (it is called also traditional school of science or the hypothesis school)
2     -    Interpretivism (It is called also constructionism)

Interpretivism (Constructionism) 
Description in brief
After discovering a research gap, hypotheses are formulated then tested statistically.
Problem is not well defined, so you go to the people to understand the problem in qualitative way (non-numerical way).
Suitable for
·   A worldwide problem or industry specific problem.
·   Researcher has knowledge about the top so that he could construct  the questionnaire in an efficient way
·   Problem in general is not new and literature is available for it. Therefore, there is no need for exploring the problem.
·   It is a firm or group of firms’ problem.
·   Researcher does not know a lot about the top so that it is preferred to observe and conduct interviews.
·   Literature is not extensive in the topic.

·   Validation is very objective because the researcher does not intervene in the results.
·   Statistics can discover unnoticeable behaviors or relationships between concepts.
·   Enables the researcher to be expert in the topic because he/she touches the problem by his/her hand.
·   Organizations problems are solved and documented.
·   It has a direct impact on the economy
·   It is suitable for developing tools, software, and methodologies
·   It is not suitable for explanatory research.
·   It is not suitable for developing tools, software, and methodologies.
·   Validation is questioned since the validation is conducted by taking opinions of experts (Which may be your friends!!!!) or opinions of academics (which also your friends).
·   There is no objective way for validating your tool, software, or methodology.

Q2: A question for MIS researcher and Operations Management Researcher, do you think developing a tool or software make you deserve to obtain PhD? (Professor Stephen Evans, Cambridge University)
The answer is no because you have to have a theory for awarding the PhD.

Q3: So, why do I need to develop a tool or software at the end of my PhD?
Because your sponsor organization sponsors you to develop a tool or software for solving the problem. 

Q4: I do not have sponsor, do you think I need to develop a tool?
Yes, because at the end of your PhD you need to deliver to your community something tangible otherwise your PhD may be useless.

Q5: Okay, so I will develop a tool (to delivery something tangible) and I will develop a theory for awarding PhD. But what is the relationship between theory and the tool?
Since you are PhD student, you have to develop your theory to be the scientific base for developing your tool.

Q6: Now, the most important question, which research methodologies I should follow positivism or Interpretivism?
Actually, neither positivism nor Interpretivism could be followed.

Q7: Why?
Positivism alone will enable you to develop a very good theory based on testing hypotheses (positivism epistemology) but it will not enable you to develop your tool or software. Moreover, it will not enable you to understand the context of the problem (anti-positivism ontology).
On the other hand, Interpretivism alone will enable you to understand the problem and the context. But it will not enable you to verify your theory in an objective way since you will validate it in a so wired way which is asking your friends (we call them in the research experts and academia) to tell their opinions about my model?? Certainly, they will say “it is a big wow model”. 
It is not only the problem of validation but developing theory in an inductive way (develop theory based on 3 or 4 organization) is also questioned because 3 or 4 organizations are not sufficient to say it is a general theory. 

Q8: Thus, how can I solve this paradox? I want to develop a theory and its tools or software, what can I do?  What can I do?
The answer is “Critical Realism” Research.

Q9: What is critical realism research sometimes called pragmatic research (Some authors differentiate between them)?
Critical Realism research is a mixed philosophy. Mixed philosophy can take different forms
      -    Develop your theory based on interviews from small number of organizations (Interpretivism ontology) but you will validate the results using questionnaire (testing hypotheses).  Finally, you use the results to develop a tool using case studies. Sometimes it is called pragmatism.  
           -    Develop dynamic hypotheses in your interviews (grounded theory). In other words, your questions in interview guided by hypotheses. --> Many authors consider it interpretivism approach. But it considers testing hypotheses. 
          -    Develop your theory based on case study using interviews (Interpretivism ontology) but you validate the results using historical records or archival analysis à this is the ubiquitous form of critical realism. 
      - Doing action research by observing and interviewing first (Interpretivism) then the researcher act or intervene (by asking people to do something or asking organization to use something) and then see the results.  Therefore, the researcher develops the theory based on observation and interviews. From this theory, he develops hypotheses that tested by a real situation. And finally, researcher document objectively the results of his/her act. Actually, this is a loop. Therefore, based on the results and more interviews, new hypotheses should be developed in order to ask the organization to do specific acts to test these hypotheses. Again, the results should be documented and so on.
Actually, a lot of nowadays systems are based on action research. I am one of the believers that developing a tool or software based on theory without using the critical realism research is questioned.

Q10: So, what is the critical realism in philosophy?
In brief, you criticize the reality that you observe. So you have to test that the reality you get in order to state it is reality.

Q11: Okay, I know authors differentiate between realism and critical realism philosophies?
Yes, realism believes that what you see is real without doubt. On the other hand, critical realism is based on criticizing the reality that we observe. Therefore, I can classify pure Interpretivism and positivism as realism because both of the schools focus on a single way of getting the reality. No one doubted in the way of getting knowledge. In other words, positivists validate their way of getting knowledge (Epistemology) by validating the questionnaire (the tool of getting the knowledge) not by validating the way of getting the knowledge. In the same vein, Interpretivism, validate their models by asking people about their opinions about the model. Again the same problem they validate the model which is based on interviews by using the interview. If interview succeed at the first time, absolutely, it will succeed at the second time. Again we do not validate the way of getting the knowledge.
Only Critical realism criticizes the way of getting the knowledge as well as criticizing the ontology of the knowledge.
Based on this philosophical debate, your tool or your software should be validated in an objective way (based on hypotheses) but it should be developed in an interpretive way (based on your experience and interaction with people).

Q 12: What do you advise me?
I advise you to read critical realism by reading PhD theses. You will not find this school in academic papers. Why? Because it is a big project so that the researcher publishes at least 3 journal papers from this PhD. Each Journal paper takes one phase of research.

Q13: Do not read about critical realism from research methodology books. Why?
First, most of research methodology authors are either positivist or Interpretivist. Therefore, they will explain critical realism in a difficult way in order to make you believe it is impossible. And the rest of the book is either positivist or Interpretivist. So how can you read the rest of the book if you liked the critical realism???
Second, critical realism is an art more than science. 
Therefore, it is better to read the research projects of the leaders of action research and critical realism authors.

Q14: So, where can I find the leaders of this kind of research?
I do not know much of them, but you can find universities accept this approach such as  
University of Cambridge (IfM) (Such as Professor Stephen Evans), 
Cranfield University (School of Applied Science & School of Management) Such as Professor Joe Peppard and Dr. Essam Shehab, 
Bath University (Operations & Logistic Management) such as Jens Roehrich, 
University of Twente  (Dr. Maya Daneva &  Professor Weirenga ), 
and Aston University (School of Management)  (Professor Tim Baines)

You can read their PhD students theses. 

Q15: Where can I read PhD theses that use critical research approach?
I upload them on the Facebook group.  Go to the group, and click on files to download them.

Friday, 8 March 2013

MIS Research Methodology Course (2) Positivism V.S Interpretivism

MIS Research Methodology Course (2) 

Positivism V.S Interpretivism

What are different Philosophical schools of thought “world view”?
Interpretivism and Positivism

What is Ontology?
Ontology means “what is the reality?” Reality could be Constructionist or Realist (objectivist)

What is difference between Constructionist and Realist Ontology?
Constructionist believes that reality is formed and shaped in the minds of people. And this reality is different from organization to organization and from country to country. What is right in Egypt may be not right in US.
Realist Ontology believes that there is a single reality and all people in the world have the same reality. Therefore, it is better to use it for universal laws and building conceptual models.

What is Epistemology?
Epistemology means the theory of getting the knowledge. Epistemology could be Interpretivist or Empiricist.  It addresses the relationship between the knower and what is known? How do we know what we know? What counts as knowledge?

What is the difference between Interpretivist and Empiricist?
Interpretivist means that you look, observe, or listen and interpret what you see or listen.
Empiricist means you experiment your hypothesis in an objective way to get the knowledge.

What are different research designs?
Fixed design and Flexible design

Compare between Positivism and Interpretivism.

Goal of the research
Filling knowledge gap or finding universal laws
Solving problem , how do situational and cultural variations shape the reality
Single reality in the mind of people
No single reality – reality is different from context to context
“What is the reality”
“How can we get the reality”
Research Approach
Deductive  (you test the theory or test the explanation)
Inductive  (you develop your theory)
Research Methods
Focus Group, Observation, and Interviews.
Research Design
Fixed Design
Flexible Design
Thesis, Paper structure, or Conference paper
Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Theoretical Framework, Literature Review, Research Methodology, Data Collection, Analysis, and Validation.
Abstract, Introduction, Aims & Objectives, Research Questions, Research Methodology, Literature Review, Data Collection, Analysis, and Validation
Impersonal voice.
Personal voice.
Validated using statistics
Validating using interviews
You could generalize
You could not generalize the idea.
You can compare results from different studies since there are standardized statistical tools
You cannot compare easily since the observers are different
Quantitative, Objectivism
Qualitative, Subjectivism
Problem as a whole are better understood if they are reduced into the simplest possible elements
Problems as a whole are better understood if the totality of the situation is looked at.

Suggested Readings

Tuli (1997) “The Basis Distinction between qualitative and quantitative research in social science: Reflection on ontological, epistemological and methodological perspectives”, available on Facebook group.
Holden & Lynch “Choosing the Appropriate Methodology: Understanding Research Philosophy”, available on face book group.

The course will be once a week. Therefore, it is expected to finish after 80 weeks or 2 years. The lesson will be recorded Friday night. Then, it will be published Saturday or Sunday via YouTube on this channel 

Additionally, supplementary materials will be published on the facebook group which is

You could also subscribe to this blog to follow up my notes and uploads.
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